LLMS01-LoRaWAN Leaf Moisture Sensor User Manual

Last modified by Xiaoling on 2022/10/27 15:33


Table of Contents:

1. Introduction

1.1 ​What is LoRaWAN Leaf Moisture Sensor

The Dragino LLMS01 is a LoRaWAN Leaf Moisture Sensor for IoT of Agriculture. It is designed to measure the leaf moisture and temperature, so to send to the platform to analyze the leaf status such as : watering, moisturizing, dew, frozen. The probe is IP67 waterproof.

LLMS01 detects leaf's moisture and temperature use FDR method, it senses the dielectric constant cause by liquid over the leaf surface, and cover the value to leaf moisture. The probe is design in a leaf shape to best simulate the real leaf characterizes. The probe has as density as 15 leaf vein lines per centimeter which make it can senses small drop and more accuracy.

The LoRa wireless technology used in LLMS01 allows device to send data and reach extremely long ranges at low data-rates. It provides ultra-long range spread spectrum communication and high interference immunity whilst minimizing current consumption.

LLMS01 is powered by 8500mAh Li-SOCI2 battery, it is designed for long term use up to 5 years.

Each LLMS01 is pre-load with a set of unique keys for LoRaWAN registrations, register these keys to local LoRaWAN server and it will auto connect after power on.


​1.2 Features

  • LoRaWAN 1.0.3 Class A
  • Ultra-low power consumption
  • Monitor Leaf moisture
  • Monitor Leaf temperature
  • Monitor Battery Level
  • Bands: CN470/EU433/KR920/US915/EU868/AS923/AU915/IN865
  • AT Commands to change parameters
  • Uplink on periodically
  • Downlink to change configure
  • IP66 Waterproof Enclosure
  • IP67 rate for the Sensor Probe
  • 8500mAh Battery for long term use

1.3 Probe Specification

Leaf Moisture: percentage of water drop over total leaf surface

  • Range 0-100%
  • Resolution: 0.1%
  • Accuracy: ±3%(0-50%);±6%(>50%)
  • IP67 Protection
  • Length: 3.5 meters

Leaf Temperature:

  • Range -50℃~80℃
  • Resolution: 0.1℃
  • Accuracy: <±0.5℃(-10℃~70℃),<±1.0℃ (others)
  • IP67 Protection
  • Length: 3.5 meters

1.4 ​Applications

  • Smart Agriculture

1.5 Pin mapping and power on


2. Configure LLMS01 to connect to LoRaWAN network

2.1 How it works

The LLMS01 is configured as LoRaWAN OTAA Class A mode by default. It has OTAA keys to join LoRaWAN network. To connect a local LoRaWAN network, you need to input the OTAA keys in the LoRaWAN IoT server and power on the LLMS01. It will automatically join the network via OTAA and start to send the sensor value. The default uplink interval is 20 minutes.

In case you can't set the OTAA keys in the LoRaWAN OTAA server, and you have to use the keys from the server, you can use AT Commands to set the keys in the LLMS01.

2.2 ​Quick guide to connect to LoRaWAN server (OTAA)

Following is an example for how to join the TTN v3 LoRaWAN Network. Below is the network structure; we use the LG308  as a LoRaWAN gateway in this example. 




The LG308 is already set to connected to TTN network , so what we need to now is configure the TTN server.


Step 1: Create a device in TTN with the OTAA keys from LLMS01.

Each LLMS01 is shipped with a sticker with the default device EUI as below:


You can enter this key in the LoRaWAN Server portal. Below is TTN screen shot:

Register the device




Add APP EUI in the application




Step 2: Power on LLMS01

Put a Jumper on JP2 to power on the device. ( The Switch must be in FLASH position).


Step 3: The LLMS01 will auto join to the TTN network. After join success, it will start to upload messages to TTN and you can see the messages in the panel.



2.3 ​Uplink Payload

LLMS01 will uplink payload via LoRaWAN with below payload format:  

Uplink payload includes in total 11 bytes.

Normal uplink payload:

Size (bytes)

ValueBAT Leaf Moisture Leaf TemperatureReserve


2.3.1 Battery Info

Check the battery voltage for LLMS01.

Ex1: 0x0B45 = 2885mV

Ex2: 0x0B49 = 2889mV

2.3.2 DS18B20 Temperature sensor

This is optional, user can connect external DS18B20 sensor to the +3.3v, 1-wire and GND pin . and this field will report temperature.


If payload is: 0105H:  (0105 & FC00 == 0), temp = 0105H /10 = 26.1 degree

If payload is: FF3FH :  (FF3F & FC00 == 1) , temp = (FF3FH - 65536)/10 = -19.3 degrees.

2.3.3 Leaf Moisture

Range: 0 ~ 100%


0x0015(H) = 21(D) = 21%

2.3.4 Leaf Temperature

Get Leaf Temperature  


If payload is: 0105H:  (0105 & FC00 == 0), temp = 0105H /10 = 26.1 degree

If payload is: FF3FH :  (FF3F & FC00 == 1) , temp = (FF3FH - 65536)/10 = -19.3 degrees.

2.3.5 Interrupt Pin

This data field shows if this packet is generated by interrupt or not. Click here for the hardware and software set up.


0x00: Normal uplink packet.

0x01: Interrupt Uplink Packet.

2.3.6 Message Type

For a normal uplink payload, the message type is always 0x01.

Valid Message Type:

Message Type CodeDescriptionPayload
0x01Normal UplinkNormal Uplink Payload
0x02Reply configures infoConfigure Info Payload

2.3.7 Decode payload in The Things Network

While using TTN network, you can add the payload format to decode the payload.


The payload decoder function for TTN is here:

2.4 Uplink Interval

The LLMS01 by default uplink the sensor data every 20 minutes. User can change this interval by AT Command or LoRaWAN Downlink Command. See this link:  Change Uplink Interval

2.5 ​Show Data in DataCake IoT Server

DATACAKE provides a human friendly interface to show the sensor data, once we have data in TTN, we can use DATACAKE to connect to TTN and see the data in DATACAKE. Below are the steps:


Step 1: Be sure that your device is programmed and properly connected to the network at this time.

Step 2: To configure the Application to forward data to DATACAKE you will need to add integration. To add the DATACAKE integration, perform the following steps:



Step 3: Create an account or log in Datacake.

Step 4: Create LLMS01 product.




Step 5: add payload decode




After added, the sensor data arrive TTN, it will also arrive and show in Mydevices.


2.6 Installation

LLMS01 probe has two sides. The side without words are the sense side. Please be ware when install the sensor.



2.7 Frequency Plans

The LLMS01 uses OTAA mode and below frequency plans by default. If user want to use it with different frequency plan, please refer the AT command sets.

2.7.1 EU863-870 (EU868)


868.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

868.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125 and SF7BW250

868.5 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

867.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

867.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

867.5 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

867.7 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

867.9 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

868.8 - FSK



Uplink channels 1-9 (RX1)

869.525 - SF9BW125 (RX2 downlink only)

2.7.2 US902-928(US915)

Used in USA, Canada and South America. Frequency band as per definition in LoRaWAN 1.0.3 Regional document.

To make sure the end node supports all sub band by default. In the OTAA Join process, the end node will use frequency 1 from sub-band1, then frequency 1 from sub-band2, then frequency 1 from sub-band3, etc to process the OTAA join.

After Join success, the end node will switch to the correct sub band by:

  • Check what sub-band the LoRaWAN server ask from the OTAA Join Accept message and switch to that sub-band
  • Use the Join successful sub-band if the server doesn't include sub-band info in the OTAA Join Accept message ( TTN v2 doesn't include)

2.7.3 CN470-510 (CN470)

Used in China, Default use CHE=1


486.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

486.5 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

486.7 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

486.9 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

487.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

487.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

487.5 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

487.7 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125



506.7 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

506.9 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

507.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

507.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

507.5 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

507.7 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

507.9 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

508.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

505.3 - SF12BW125 (RX2 downlink only)

2.7.4 AU915-928(AU915)

Frequency band as per definition in LoRaWAN 1.0.3 Regional document.

To make sure the end node supports all sub band by default. In the OTAA Join process, the end node will use frequency 1 from sub-band1, then frequency 1 from sub-band2, then frequency 1 from sub-band3, etc to process the OTAA join.


After Join success, the end node will switch to the correct sub band by:

  • Check what sub-band the LoRaWAN server ask from the OTAA Join Accept message and switch to that sub-band
  • Use the Join successful sub-band if the server doesn't include sub-band info in the OTAA Join Accept message ( TTN v2 doesn't include)

2.7.5 AS920-923 & AS923-925 (AS923)

Default Uplink channel:

923.2 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

923.4 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125


Additional Uplink Channel:

(OTAA mode, channel added by JoinAccept message)


AS920~AS923 for Japan, Malaysia, Singapore:

922.2 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

922.4 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

922.6 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

922.8 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

923.0 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

922.0 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125


AS923 ~ AS925 for Brunei, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam:

923.6 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

923.8 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

924.0 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

924.2 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

924.4 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125

924.6 - SF7BW125 to SF10BW125



Uplink channels 1-8 (RX1)

923.2 - SF10BW125 (RX2)

2.7.6 KR920-923 (KR920)

Default channel:

922.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

922.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

922.5 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125


Uplink: (OTAA mode, channel added by JoinAccept message)

922.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

922.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

922.5 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

922.7 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

922.9 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

923.1 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

923.3 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125



Uplink channels 1-7(RX1)

921.9 - SF12BW125 (RX2 downlink only; SF12BW125 might be changed to SF9BW125)

2.7.7 IN865-867 (IN865)


865.0625 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

865.4025 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125

865.9850 - SF7BW125 to SF12BW125



Uplink channels 1-3 (RX1)

866.550 - SF10BW125 (RX2)

2.8 LED Indicator

The LLMS01 has an internal LED which is to show the status of different state. 

  • The sensor is detected when the device is turned on, and it will flash 4 times quickly when it is detected.
  • Blink once when device transmit a packet.

2.9 ​Firmware Change Log

Firmware download link:   https://www.dropbox.com/sh/0elufwppq5i6tfu/AAAMZklxDl-WdeT4xrAGXxCma?dl=0

Firmware Upgrade Method: Firmware Upgrade Instruction

3. Configure LLMS01 via AT Command or LoRaWAN Downlink

Use can configure LLMS01 via AT Command or LoRaWAN Downlink.

There are two kinds of commands to configure LLMS01, they are:

  •  General Commands.

These commands are to configure:

  • General system settings like: uplink interval.

  • LoRaWAN protocol & radio related command.

They are same for all Dragino Device which support DLWS-005 LoRaWAN Stack. These commands can be found on the wiki: End Device AT Commands and Downlink Command


  •  Commands special design for LLMS01

These commands only valid for LLMS01, as below:

3.1 Set Transmit Interval Time

Feature: Change LoRaWAN End Node Transmit Interval.

AT Command: AT+TDC


Downlink Command: 0x01

Format: Command Code (0x01) followed by 3 bytes time value.

If the downlink payload=0100003C, it means set the END Node’s Transmit Interval to 0x00003C=60(S), while type code is 01.

  • Example 1: Downlink Payload: 0100001E // Set Transmit Interval (TDC) = 30 seconds

  • Example 2: Downlink Payload: 0100003C // Set Transmit Interval (TDC) = 60 seconds


3.2 Set Interrupt Mode

Feature, Set Interrupt mode for GPIO_EXIT.



Downlink Command: 0x06

Format: Command Code (0x06) followed by 3 bytes.

This means that the interrupt mode of the end node is set to 0x000003=3 (rising edge trigger), and the type code is 06.

  • Example 1: Downlink Payload: 06000000 // Turn off interrupt mode

  • Example 2: Downlink Payload: 06000003 // Set the interrupt mode to rising edge trigger


3.3 Get Firmware Version Info

Feature: use downlink to get firmware version.

Downlink Command: 0x26


  • Reply to the confirmation package: 26 01
  • Reply to non-confirmed packet: 26 00

Device will send an uplink after got this downlink command. With below payload:

Configures info payload:


ValueSoftware Type




Sensor TypeReserve

Message Type
Always 0x02

Software Type: Always 0x03 for LLMS01

Frequency Band:

*0x01: EU868

*0x02: US915

*0x03: IN865

*0x04: AU915

*0x05: KZ865

*0x06: RU864

*0x07: AS923

*0x08: AS923-1

*0x09: AS923-2

*0xa0: AS923-3

Sub-Band: value 0x00 ~ 0x08

Firmware Version: 0x0100, Means: v1.0.0 version

Sensor Type:

0x01: LSE01

0x02: LDDS75

0x03: LDDS20

0x04: LLMS01

0x05: LSPH01

0x06: LSNPK01

4. Battery & How to replace

4.1 Battery Type

LLMS01 is equipped with a 8500mAH ER26500 Li-SOCI2 battery. The battery is un-rechargeable battery with low discharge rate targeting for 8~10 years use. This type of battery is commonly used in IoT target for long-term running, such as water meter.

The discharge curve is not linear so can't simply use percentage to show the battery level. Below is the battery performance.



Minimum Working Voltage for the LLMS01:

LLMS01:  2.45v ~ 3.6v

4.2 Replace Battery

Any battery with range 2.45 ~ 3.6v can be a replacement. We recommend to use Li-SOCl2 Battery.

And make sure the positive and negative pins match.

4.3 Power Consumption Analyze

Dragino Battery powered product are all runs in Low Power mode. We have an update battery calculator which base on the measurement of the real device. User can use this calculator to check the battery life and calculate the battery life if want to use different transmit interval.

Instruction to use as below:


Step 1: Downlink the up-to-date DRAGINO_Battery_Life_Prediction_Table.xlsx from: https://www.dragino.com/downloads/index.pHp?dir=LoRa_End_Node/Battery_Analyze/


Step 2: Open it and choose

  • Product Model

  • Uplink Interval

  • Working Mode

And the Life expectation in difference case will be shown on the right.


The battery related documents as below:


4.3.1 ​Battery Note

The Li-SICO battery is designed for small current / long period application. It is not good to use a high current, short period transmit method. The recommended minimum period for use of this battery is 5 minutes. If you use a shorter period time to transmit LoRa, then the battery life may be decreased.

​4.3.2 Replace the battery

You can change the battery in the LLMS01.The type of battery is not limited as long as the output is between 3v to 3.6v.  On the main board, there is a diode (D1) between the battery and the main circuit. If you need to use a battery with less than 3.3v, please remove the D1 and shortcut the two pads of it so there won't be voltage drop between battery and main board.

The default battery pack of LLMS01 includes a ER26500 plus super capacitor. If user can't find this pack locally, they can find ER26500 or equivalence, which will also work in most case. The SPC can enlarge the battery life for high frequency use (update period below 5 minutes)

5. Use AT Command

5.1 Access AT Commands

LLMS01 supports AT Command set in the stock firmware. You can use a USB to TTL adapter to connect to LLMS01 for using AT command, as below.






In the PC, you need to set the serial baud rate to 9600 to access the serial console for LLMS01. LLMS01 will output system info once power on as below:


Valid AT Command please check Configure Device.

6. FAQ

6.1 How to change the LoRa Frequency Bands/Region

You can follow the instructions for how to upgrade image.
When downloading the images, choose the required image file for download. ​

7. Trouble Shooting

7.1 AT Commands input doesn't work

In the case if user can see the console output but can't type input to the device. Please check if you already include the ENTER while sending out the command. Some serial tool doesn't send ENTER while press the send key, user need to add ENTER in their string. 

8. Order Info

Part Number: LLMS01-XX

XX: The default frequency band

  • AS923:  LoRaWAN AS923 band
  • AU915: LoRaWAN AU915 band
  • EU433:  LoRaWAN EU433 band
  • EU868:  LoRaWAN EU868 band
  • KR920:  LoRaWAN KR920 band
  • US915:  LoRaWAN US915 band
  • IN865:   LoRaWAN IN865 band
  • CN470: LoRaWAN CN470 band

9. ​Packing Info

Package Includes:

  • LLMS01 LoRaWAN Leaf Moisture Sensor x 1

Dimension and weight:

  • Device Size: cm
  • Device Weight: g
  • Package Size / pcs : cm
  • Weight / pcs : g

10. ​Support

  • Support is provided Monday to Friday, from 09:00 to 18:00 GMT+8. Due to different timezones we cannot offer live support. However, your questions will be answered as soon as possible in the before-mentioned schedule.
  • Provide as much information as possible regarding your enquiry (product models, accurately describe your problem and steps to replicate it etc) and send a mail to support@dragino.com.


Created by Xiaoling on 2022/06/07 18:17
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