Table of Contents:

1. OTAA Join Process Debug

These pages are useful to check what is wrong on the Join process. Below shows the four steps that we can check the Join Process.

If user has checked below steps and still can't solve the problem, please send us (support @ dragino.com) the sceenshots for each step to check. They include:

  • End node console to show the Join freuqency and DR. (If possible)
  • Gateway (from gateway UI) traffic to show the packet got from end node and receive from Server. (If possible)
  • Gateway traffic (from server UI) to shows the data exchange between gateway and server. (Normaly possible)
  • End Node traffic (from server UI) to shows end node activity in server. (Normaly possible)
  • End Node Keys screen shot shows in end node and server. so we can check if the keys are correct. (In most case, we found keys doesn't match, especially APP EUI)

1. End Device Join Screen shot, we can check:

  • If the device is sending join request to server?
  • What frequency the device is sending?

image-20220526164956-15.png

Console Output from End device to see the transmit frequency

2. Gateway packet traffic in gateway web or ssh. we can check:

  • If the gateway receive the Join request packet from sensor? (If this fail, check if the gateway and sensor works on the match frequency)
  • If the gateway gets the Join Accept message from server and transmit it via LoRa?

image-20220526163608-2.png

Console Output from Gateway to see packets between end node and server.

3. Gateway Traffic Page in LoRaWAN Server

  • If the Join Request packet arrive the gateway traffic in server? If not, check the internet connection and gateway LoRaWAN server settings.
  • If the server send back a Join Accept for the Join Request? if not, check if the keys from the device match the keys you put in the server, or try to choose a different server route for this end device.
  • If the Join Accept message are in correct frequency? If you set the server to use US915 band, and your end node and gateway is EU868, you will see the Join Accept message are in US915 band so no possible to Join success.

image-20220526163633-3.png

The Traffic for the End node in the server, use TTN as example

4. Data Page in LoRaWAN server

  • If this data page shows the Join Request message from the end node? If not, most properly you have wrong settings in the keys. Keys in the server doesn't match the keys in End Node.

image-20220526163704-4.png

The data for the end device set in server

image-20220526163732-5.png

Check if OTAA Keys match the keys in device

2. Notice of US915/CN470/AU915 Frequency band

If user has problem to work with lorawan server in band US915/AU915/CN470, he can check:

  • What sub-band the server support ?

  • What is the sub-band the gateway support ?

  • What is the sub-band the end node is using ?

All of above should match so End Node can properly Join the server and don't have packet lost.

 

In LoRaWAN protocol, the frequency bands US915, AU915, CN470 each includes at least 72 frequencies. Many gateways support only 8 or 16 frequencies, and server might support 8 frequency only. In this case, the OTAA join time and uplink schedule is long and unpredictable while the end node is hopping in 72 frequencies, because the end node will send data in many frequency that the gateway or server doesn,t support.

 

Here are the freuqency tables for these bands as reference:

image-20220526163801-6.png

US915 Channels

image-20220526163926-7.png

AU915 Channels

image-20220526163941-8.png

CN470 Channels

 

If we look at the TTN network server frequency plan, we can see the US915 frequency band use the channel 8~15.So the End Node must work at the same frequency in US915 8~15 channels for TTN server.

image-20220526164052-9.png

TTN FREQUENCY PLAN

 

In dragino end node, user can use AT+CHE command to set what frequencies set the end node will use. The default settings for Dragino end node are preconfigure for TTN server, so use 8~15 channels, which is AT+CHE=2. (AT+CHE=1 for first 8 channels, AT+CHE=2 for second 8 channels.. etc, and AT+CHE=0 for all 72 channels. )

3. Why i see data lost/unperiocially uplink data? Even the signal strength is good

In this case, we can check if the frequency band matches in End Node, Gateway and LoRaWAN server. A typical case is using US915 in ChirpStack server as below:

  • End node --> Use Sub-band2 (Channel 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15) for Dragino Sensor. ADR is also enable, this is the default settings for dragino sensors.
  • Gateway --> Use Sub-band2 (Channel 8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15) for Dragino Gateway. this is the default settings for dragino sensors.
  • LoRaWAN server --> ChirpStack default installation and use Sub-band1, enabled_uplink_channels=[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] in the file chirpstack-network-server.toml.

When Sensor power on, it will use sub-band2 to join the network, the frequency matches the settings in gateway so all Join Request will be passed to the server for Join. Server will ask the sensor to change to Sub-band1 in the Join Accept downlink message. Sensor will change to sub-band1 for data upload. This cause the sensor and gateway have different frequencies so user see lost of most data or even no data.

 

Use Subband2 as a default subband cause the sensor to have problem to work with the LoRaWAN server which use other subband, and use need to access to the end node to change the subband by console. that is not user frendily,. So since Dragino LoRaWAN Stack version DLS-005(release on end of 2020), we have changed the device to use All Subbands for OTAA join, for example, device will use the first frequency in Sub-Band1 as firt OTAA join packet, then use the first frequency in Sub-Band 2 , then first frequency in sub-band 3, and so on. LoRaWAN server will normally provide the required subband in the OTAA accept process, so end node will know what subband it use after join. If LoRaWAN server doesn't provide subband info in OTAA join, end node will use the subband which join success as the working subband. So the new method cause a longer OTAA Join time but will be compatible with all LoRaWAN server. And new method won't affect the normal uplink after Join Success.

4. Transmision on ABP Mode

In ABP mode, there is a Frame Counter Checks. With this check enabled, the server will only accept the frame with a higher counter. If you reboot the device in ABP mode, the device will start from count 0, so you won't be able to see the frame update in server.

 

So in ABP mode, first check if the packet already arrive your gateway, if the packet arrive gatewat but didn't arrive server. Please check if this is the issue.

 

To solve this, disable the Frame Counter Check will solve this issue , or reset the frame counter in the device page.

image-20220526164508-10.png

Disable Frame Counter Check in ABP Mode

5. Downstream Debug

5.1 How it work

LoRaWAN End node will open two receive windows to receive the downstream data. If the downstream packets arrive the end node at these receive windows, the end node will be able to get this packet and process it.

Depends on Class A or Class C, the receive windows will be a little difference,

image-20220531161828-1.png

receive windows for Class A and Class C

Below are the requirement for the End Device to receive the packets.

  • The End Device must open the receive windows: RX1 or RX2
  • The LoRaWAN server must send a downstream packet, and the gateway forward this downstream packet for this end node.
  • This downstream packet must arrive to the end node while RX1 or RX2 is open.
  • This packet must match the frequency of the RX1 or RX2 window.
  • This packet must match the DataRate of RX1(RX1DR) or RX2 (RX2DR). This is the common fail point, because different lorawan server might use different RX2DR and they don't info End Node via ADR message so cause the mismatch. If this happen, user need to change the RX2DR to the right value in end node. In OTAA, LoRaWAN Server will send the RX2DR setting in Join Accept message so the end node will auto adjust. but ABP uplink doesn't support this auto change.

5.2 See Debug Info

For LoRaWAN Server

We can check if there is downlink message for this end node, use TTN for example:

Configure a downstream to the end device

image-20220526164623-12.png

Set a downstream in TTN and see it is sent

This downstream info will then pass to the gateway downstream list. and include the DR which is used (SF9BW125) in EU868 is DR3

image-20220526164650-13.png

Gateway Traffic can see this downstream info

For LoRaWAN Gateway

When the downstream packet appear on the traffic of Gateway page. The LoRaWAN gateway can get it from LoRaWAN server and transmit it. In Dragion Gateway, this can be checked by runinng "logread -f" in the SSH console. and see below:

image-20220526164734-14.png

Gateway Sent out this packet

For End Node

we can use AT Command (AT+CFG) to check the RX1 configure and RX2 configure. as below:

AT+RX2FQ=869525000     --->   The RX2 Window frequency
AT+RX2DR=3                     --->   The RX2 DataRate
AT+RX1DL=1000               --->    Receive Delay 1
AT+RX2DL=2000               --->    Receive Delay 2

 

when the device running, we can see below info:

 [12502]***** UpLinkCounter= 0 *****
 [12503]TX on freq 868500000 Hz at DR 0
 [13992]txDone
 [15022]RX on freq 868500000 Hz at DR 0  --> RX1 window open at frequency: 868500000, DR0, after 15022-13992= 1030ms of txdone
 [15222]rxTimeOut                        --> no packet arrive in RX1 window. (duration: 200ms)
 [15987]RX on freq 869525000 Hz at DR 3  --> RX2 window open at frequency: 869525000, DR3, after 15987-13992= 1995ms of txdone
 [16027]rxTimeOut                        --> no packet arrive in RX2 window. (duration: 40 ms)

 

 

Another message:

 [12502]***** UpLinkCounter= 0 *****
 [12503]TX on freq 868100000 Hz at DR 0
 [13992]txDone
 [15022]RX on freq 868100000 Hz at DR 0
 [15222]rxTimeOut
 [15987]RX on freq 869525000 Hz at DR 3
 [16185]rxDone                           --> We have got the downstream packet.
 Rssi= -64
 Receive data
 1:0012345678

5.3 If problem doesn't solve

If user has checked below steps and still can't solve the problem, please send us (support @ dragino.com) the sceenshots for each step to check. They include:

  • End node console to show the transmit freuqency and DR.
  • Gateway (from gateway UI) traffic to show the packet got from end node and receive from Server.
  • Gateway traffic (from server UI) to shows the data exchange between gateway and server.
  • End Node traffic (from server UI) to shows end node activity in server.

6. Downlink Issue -- Packet REJECTED, unsupported frequency

In LoRaWAN, the gatewat will use the frequency specify by the server to transmit a packet as downlink purpose. Each Frequency band has different downlink frequency. and the gateway has a frequency range limited to transmit downlink.

 

So if the LoRaWAN server is an AS923 server which ask the gateway to transmit at 923.2Mhz frequency, but the gateway is IN868 frequency band (support 865~867Mhz to transmit). In the gateway log it will show something like below:

Sat Nov 21 08:04:17 2020 daemon.info lora_pkt_fwd[1680]: ERROR~ Packet REJECTED, unsupported frequency - 923200000 (min:865000000,max:867000000)

 

In this case, please double check the gateway frequency and the server frequency band.

7. Decrypt a LoRaWAN Packet

1. LHT65 End device configure:

Change to ABP Mode:       AT+NJM=0
Change to fix frequency:  AT+CHS=904900000
Change to fix DR:              AT+DR=0

image-20220526165525-16.png

2. In LG02 , configure to receive above message

image-20220526165612-17.png

In LG02 console, we can see the hex receive are:

image-20220526171112-21.png

3. Decode the info in web

https://lorawan-packet-decoder-0ta6puiniaut.runkit.sh

Need these three fields:

LoRa packet hex format: 40c1190126800100024926272bf18bbb6341584e27e23245 (from LG02)

AT+NWKSKEY=00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 11 (End node Network Session Key)

AT+APPSKEY=00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 11 (End Node App Session Key)

https://lorawan-packet-decoder-0ta6puiniaut.runkit.sh/?data=40c1190126800100024926272bf18bbb6341584e27e23245&nwkskey=00000000000000000000000000000111&appskey=00000000000000000000000000000111

image-20220526171029-20.png

  The FRMPayload is the device payload.

8. Why i see uplink 0x00 periodcally on the LHT65 v1.8 firmware

Since firmware v1.8, LHT65 will send MAC command to request time, in the case if DR only support max 11 bytes, this MAC command will be bundled to a separate uplink payload with 0x00.

9. Why do I see a "MIC Mismatch" error message from the server?

1)  If the user receives a "MIC Mismatch" message after registering the node on the server.

It is likely that the user filled in the wrong APPKEY when registering the node. Many users fill in "APPSKEY".

  • Please note the distinction between "APPKEY" and "APPSKEY".

2)If the node works on the server for a period of time, the device stops working and receives a "MIC Mismatch" message.

The user needs a USB-TTL adapter to connect the serial port to modify the node APPKEY.

  • If a node is registered with multiple servers, it may also cause the "mic mismatch" error.

     

10. Why i got the payload only with "0x00" or "AA=="?

Why this happen:

For US915, AU915 or AS923 frequencies.It is possible because: .

When using the frequency mentioned above, the server sometimes adjusts the Data Rate (DR) of the node, because the end node has Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) Enabled.

When the server adjusts end node data rate to 0, the maximum payload length is 11 bytes. The server sometimes sends an ADR packet to the end node, and the node will reply to the server after receiving the ADR packet, but the number of payload bytes exceeds the limit, so it will send a normal uplink packet, and following an additional 00 data packet to handle this MAC command response. 

How to solve:

Solution: Use the decoder to filter out this 0x00 packet.

Some node decoders may not have the filter function, or you need decoders of other servers and formats. Please send an email to support@dragino.com

11. Why my Dev EUI and APP EUI is 0x000000000000, how to solve?

It is possible the keys is erased during upgrading of firmware. and the console output shows below after AT+CFG

AT+APPKEY=00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

AT+NWKSKEY=00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

AT+APPSKEY=00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

AT+APPEUI=00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

 

You can get the keys from the box sticker or send mail to Dragino Support to check keys with the provided SN number.

You can rewrites the keys by running commands in AT Console

 

For example:

AT+APPKEY=85 41 47 20 45 58 28 14 16 82 A0 F0 80 0D DD EE

AT+NWKSKEY=AA CC B0 20 30 45 37 32 14 1E 14 93 E2 3B 20 11

AT+APPSKEY=11 23 02 20 30 20 30 60 80 20 20 30 30 20 10 10

AT+APPEUI=2C 45 47 E3 24 12 23 24

(Any combination of 16 bit codes can be used)

12. I set my device is LoRaWAN Class C mode, why i still see Class A after boot?

Class C only refers to status after OTAA Join successfully. The OTAA Join Process will use Class A mode.

 

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