Table of Contents:

1.  Overview

This is a general instruction for the use of Armbian base OS of Dragino devices. Current models include:

  • HP0A
  • HP0C
  • LPS8v2
  • MS20


2.  Development Guide

For advanced users to develop Driver/ Linux etc.

2.1  How to recompile LoRaWAN Concentrator Driver ( dragino-fwd package).

Step 1. Clone dragino-fwd package


 sudo apt install -y libsqlite3-dev

 sudo apt install -y libftdi1-dev

Run command clone dragino-fwd package: git clone


Step 2. Compile dragino_fwd

After cloning is complete, Run the command starts compiling:

Compile HP0C/HP0A fwd:  ./  c

The following example compilers HP0C fwd.


When the compilation is complete a draginofwd-*.deb package is generated.


Step 3. Install the dragino_fwd

Run command:

dpkg -i draginofwd-*.deb 


Step 4. Test

Check the dragino_fwd log:

journalctl -u draginofwd -f


Start/stop dragino_fwd via systemctl:

systemctl start draginofwd

systemctl stop draginofwd

2.2  How to clone Complete OS on the EMMC to SD card

2.3  How to flash a new image(OS) to the gateway(LPS8V2)

Since the gateway has a large system, you need to use the sd card to reflash the system for the gateway

2.3.1: Making an SD card with the new image

2.3.2: Instal the SD card to the gateway

2.3.3: Flash the image to the gateway's built memory from the SD card

2.3.4: Finished the process of flash and power cycle the gateway


  1. Prepare an SD card
  2. Prepare a card reader device
  3. Download the OS image from the release.image:  ( File format dragino-lps8v2-1.7.img )
  4. A Flash software tool ( Such as v1.7.9 from balenaEtcher )
  5. SD Card format tool

2.3.1 Making an SD Card with the new image

Step 1.  Formatting the SD Card


Step 2. Select the OS image


Step 3. Select the target



Step 4. Flash start



2.3.2 Instal the SD card to the gateway

  1. Open the device's enclosure, and put the SD card into the SD card slot


2. Power the gateway with 5V2A, and access the gateway's Ethernet port to your PC


Note: The PWR LED on red

          The  LAN LED blink

          The SYS LED on red

3.2.3 Flash the image to the gateway's built memory from the SD card

Access the gateway Linux CLI to flash the image to the gateway's built memory

  • Use the IP address to access the gateway CLI

Users can access the gateway CLI via the SSH protocol. Make sure your PC and the gateway are connected to the same network, then use a SSH tool (such as putty in Windows) to access it.

IP address:  IP address of gateway or Fallback IP(

Port:           22 

User Name:      root

Password:         dragino (default)

After logging in, you will be in the gateway CLI and can enter commands as shown below.


Run command:



Select the "Boot from eMMC - system on eMMC".



Select the "1  ext4"


It takes 4-5 minutes to burn from SD card to eMMC




Note: After the flash is complete, power off the device and then remove the SD card.

2.4 How to extend the gateway size of memory with SD card

Users can use the SD card slot to expand the gateway memory size by following the steps below

2.4.1 View SD card information

fdisk -l


2.4.2 Displays the current file system disk usage statistics on Linux systems

df -h


2.4.3 Mount SD card

mkdir /mnt/sd

mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt/sd

After the mount is successful to check the file system disk usage on the Linux system again:


If the mount fails, you can format the file system and try the mount again

mkfs.ext4 /dev/mmcblk0p1

2.5 Default Built Version


2.6 How to upgrade the nodejs version to the latest.

By default, the nodejs uses the pre-install version v12 which is due to Debian the ultra-stable via ultra-old.


If you want to upgrade the nodejs to the latest, please follow to use these commands on the gateway CIL.

#install n, which is an Interactively Manage Your Node.js Versions


npm install -g n

#Install the latest LTS Node.js release (downloading if necessary)


n lts

#Remove all downloaded versions except the installed version


n prune

apt remove nodejs -y && apt autoremove -y && reboot

Check the current version


node -v

2.7 How to install Grafana and influxdb


curl | gpg --dearmor | sudo tee /usr/share/keyrings/grafana-archive-keyrings.gpg >/dev/null
echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/grafana-archive-keyrings.gpg] stable main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/grafana.list
apt update && apt install grafana

Check the running status:

systemctl status grafana-server

configuration path:



curl | gpg --dearmor | sudo tee /usr/share/keyrings/influxdb-archive-keyring.gpg >/dev/null
echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/influxdb-archive-keyring.gpg] $(lsb_release -cs) stable" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/influxdb.list
apt update && apt install influxdb

Check the running status:

systemctl status influxdb

configuration path:


3.  Package Management

3.1  Default Package Maintain System

3.1.1  How Package-Auto-Update works?

By default, LPS8v2 / MS20 series products have an auto-update feature for main packages. The device will connect to Dragino's auto-update server and check for updates.  

When devices will check for updates?

  • Devices will check for updates for every boot.
  • Devices will check for updates on every day midnight.

What packages will be checked for updates?

dragino-httpd -- Main Web UI http configuration

dragino-sid    -- SN write and read tool

dragino-ui     -- Gateway Web UI package

draginofwd   -- UDP packet forwarder, LoRa Base Station

draginoups   -- Miscellaneous between different versions

Location and changelog for packages:

How to view auto-updated log

You can view the log on the page of System --> Package Management.


Can I disable package-auto-update?

You can check the checkbox and click the ‘SAVE’ button to enable or disable the auto-update.


3.1.2  How to manually update core packages?

You can click the ‘Manual Update’ to update the dragino's packages.


3.1.3  How to manually update other packages?

For the other packages, you have to access the device's CLI to do it via the apt command.

3.2  Set up a 3rd party package maintain server

3.2.1  Overview

Customers can use their own package maintenance system instead of using the default one from Dragino. They need to set up a package maintenance system for Debian. Lots of instructions are available in Internet, below is a reference instruction.

3.2.2  Install Apache2 HTTP server

apt install apache2

3.2.3  Creating Package Directories

 cd /var/www/html/

 mkdir debian/release/dists/stable/main/binary-armhf/ -p

 mkdir debian/release/pool/main/d/dragino/ -p

Tree Structure:

Note: If you are not familiar with updating servers, most directory names are not recommended to be changed.

└── debian

    └── release

        ├── dists

        │   └── stable

        │       └── main

        │           └── binary-armhf

        └── pool

            └── main

                └── d

                    └── dragino   -->  This is the directory to store the packages. User can change it to other name.

3.2.4  Get deb packages

The deb packages for auto-update can be placed in  /var/www/html/debian/release/pool/main/d/dragino/

Below is an example package(testing-0808.deb) for test purpose:


 cp ./testing-0808.deb /var/www/html/debian/release/pool/main/d/dragino/

3.2.5  Generate Package Index file

cd /var/www/html/debian/release/

dpkg-scanpackages pool/ > dists/stable/main/binary-armhf/Packages

cat dists/stable/main/binary-armhf/Packages | gzip -9 > dists/stable/main/binary-armhf/Packages.gz

Note: Every time a package has been update, above comments need to be executed in the server to get the up-to-date package list.

3.2.6  Generate Release file

Create the generated script:

cd /var/www/html/debian/release/dists/stable


chmod + x ./

./ > Release

3.2.7  Sign the Release file with gpg and generating Inrelease file

Make sure auto-update server has gnupg

apt install gnupg

generate gpg key

gpg -gen-key

Note: Fill in the content as required and remember the name and email address.

Check the gen-key

gen -list-key

Generate the release.gpg

cd /var/www/html/debian/release/dists/stable

gpg --armor --detach-sign -o Release.gpg Release

gpg --clearsign -o InRelease Release

Generate the public key

gpg --armor --output <name>.asc --export <email address>

example: gpg --armor --output xiao.asc --export

3.2.8  Add url as apt source in LPS8v2 / MS20

Add the public key

cp xiao.asc /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/

Note: First need to transfer the public key from auto-update server to device.

Add the apt source list

Add the apt source list url and name this as test_server.list

echo "deb http://<IP_address or hostname>/debian/release stable main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/test_server.list

Validate the apt repository

Get and install the testing package (download testing-0808.deb and test)

apt update && apt install testing

Example output:


3.2.9  Configure the gateway's auto-upgrade rules

Remove dragino apt source



Set up automatic updates

Path : /usr/lib/dragino/dragino-apt-updates

The device performs automatic updates from this script,

But it will now only look for dragino as a keyword, so you need to replace the keyword dragino with your own keyword.



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