Getting Start with Arduino Yun
From Wiki for Dragino Project
What is Dragino Yun Firmware
The Dragino Yun firmware is designed to provide the easy communication between Linux and Atmel AVR mcu. In Dragino Yun firmware, developer can remote upgrade the AVR sketch via Arduino IDE, call Linux command . access Linux system in MCU.
Dragino Yun Firmware is derived from the official Arduino Yun firmware with some bugs fixed and support more avrs. The firmware source follows the development on OpenWrt Yun. The firmware can be downloaded from downloaded from This Link
This page provides necessary info of how to use Dragino Yun, how to design a plug-in module for Arduino Yun. For detail of how to use generic Arduino Yun software please consult to Arduino Yun Offical Link
What devices can run Dragino Yun firmware
- Appliance: MS14S, MS14-P ,
- Linux WiFi, IoT module: HE
- Any devices design with HE, such as Yun Shield
Requirement to get Arduino Yun alike feature
Yun firmware provide great feature such as program the AVR via Arduino IDE and easy communication between Linux and MCU. If developer want to design their customized hardware module for Dragino boards to use Yun feature, developer should make sure the correct hardware connection between dragino boards (MS14, HE , Yun Shield) and the AVR boards (Arduino UNO etc) . Features include:
- Remote upgrade sketch to AVR: Make sure the SPI connection is fine between AVR and Dragino boards.
- Communication between avr and linux:Make sure the UART connection is fine between AVR and Dragino boards.
Configure Dragino Yun
Find the ip addresses
The Dragino Yun has a WiFi interface and a LAN port. Either of them has IP address, can be used for internet connection and device management.
Factory IP of WiFi interface
At the first boot of Dragino Yun, it will auto generate an unsecure WiFi network call Dragino2-xxxxxx
User can use their laptop to connect to this WiFi network. The laptop will get an IP 192.168.240.xxx and the Dragino Yun has the default IP 192.168.240.1
Fall Back IP
A fall back IP 172.31.255.254/255.255.255.252 is assigned to Dragino Yun's LAN port so user can always access Dragino Yun with this ip if their laptop has: IP IP: 172.31.255.253 and Netmask:255.255.255.252.
Detect IP from Arduino IDE
If Dragino Yun’s Ethernet port is connected to the uplink router or the WiFi interface is associated to the WiFi router. The PC in the same network can use Arduino IDE to detect Dragino’s IP address as described in Detected Dragino Yun.
The Dragino Yun runs Open Source Linux system. If user has a PC at the same network as Dragino Yun, user can access its system via either Web Interface or Secure Shell (SSH).
Access via web interface
The recommended browsers to configure Dragino Yun are Firefox and Chrome. Simply type the IP address into your browser and you will see the log in page of Dragino Yun.
Default User name and Password for Dragino Yun is root/dragino.
Access via SSH
Via SSH access, user can access to the Linux system directly and customized the system to support more features and applications.
IP address: IP Address of Yun Shield
User Name: root
Password: dragino (default)
Web Configure Pages
General Set Up for Internet Access
After log in, the GUI will show the WIFI / ETH interface status. Click the Configure button and now user can configure the device password and network parameters.
Arduino Board Type: Define the bootloarder/mcu type/ fuse setting during Sketch upload.
Operation Mode: make sure it is in Arduino Bridge mode so the Bridge class for Arduino Yun works.
Detail please see Upgrade firmware via web UI
Detect Dragino Yun
Once the device running Dragino Yun firmware is configured and get IP address from WiFi router. It will send broadcast data in the network and if you run the latest Arduino IDE. It will auto detect Yun service and show in the port menu .
Upload Sketch to Arduino / AVR
In Dragino Yun software, user can upgrade the Arduino / AVR remotely in Arduino IDE. The Dragino Yun GUI supports different kind of Arduino/AVR boards includes:
- Arduino Leonardo or Mega32u4
- Arduino Uno or Mega328p
- Arduino Duemilanove/Diecimila or Mega168
- Arduino Mega2560 or Mega2560
User can check them in the GUI--> Sensor page. The Dragino Yun use avrdude to program so it can program more AVRs via SSH access.
Arduino Board Type: Define the bootloarder/mcu type/ fuse setting during Sketch upload.
Configure Board Type in Arduino IDE
To use Arduino IDE to upgrade the Arduino / AVR via local area network. User should configure the correct board type. To do this, user can download the related hardware info from Dragino Yun SketchBook Hardware Folder and place it into the Arduino SketchBook Directory.
Then restart the Arduino IDE, the new hardware info should be found as below:
Compile and Upload via Arduino IDE
After we have correctly configure board info. We can use the Arduino IDE to compile and upload the firmware to Arduino or AVR mcu.
During upload, Arduino IDE will ask for a password. This is the password we configure in the Web GUI. By default, it is dragino.
Arduino Bridge Library
The bridge library is the most important part of Arduino Yun. Bridge library defines a mechanisms how the AVR talk to the CPU (ar9331). With the bridge library, the avr can send data to CPU, get commands from CPU or call commands in CPU.
The bridge Library use UART port to communicate between avr and ar9331. Below is the block diagram which shows the difference between ms14 and the official Arduino Yun device. With Dragino ms14, we can use different types of avr , even use other brand mcu (PIC) with the Bridge Library.
Detail instruction of how to use the bridge library can be found in Arduino Official Website. There are several points we should consider while writing the avr software:
- In the default bridge examples from Arudino IDE, it uses Serial class to print debug info. This is ok if you connect ar9331 to ATmega32u4 because it will call USB Virtule COM Port to print the debug info, but it will have problem if you use it mcu such as ATmega168,328 because they don't have Virtual USB Com port. The serial will call mega168, 328's hardware serial port , it will be conflict with the Bridge Library.
- Arduino use ledPin 13 to show LED, user can also control SYS led on Dragino ms14, but the pin may be different depends on how user connect the avr to the ms14 sys led.
The examples sketch codes for ms14 can be found at This Link.
Auto Update Sketch
Since Firmware 2.0.4, auto update sketch is supported. With this feature, the Dragino's will connect to a http server and get the latest sketch version and upload the sketch with this version. The purpose of this feature is to reduce the tech support cost / time for remote installation.
The feature can be configured in the page system -> advanced configuration panel -> sensors -> micro controller.
- Auto Update On Boot: While this option is enabled. Device will connect to the auto server on every boot and check if there is new version of Sketch to be update. If Device find newer version on the auto update server, device will download it from the server and and update the mcu with this new version.
- Current Image Version: Shows the current sketch version. By default it is 0. Device will update this version to the latest version number only after auto update successful.
- Update URL: This URL contact the update infomation and the sketch.hex file. device will connect to this URL to check if there is newer version in the server.
- Update Info: The text file include the update information. an example for this file can be found here: example for update information file. It should includes:
- image: the sketch used for auto update
- md5sum: md5sum for this sketch.
- version: the lastest version number.
- Enable MAC Identify: Instead of geting update information as specified in Update Info, The device will looking for the update information from the file: wifi_mac.txt. which means, if the device has mac address A840417867AF, device will download the file: $Update_URL/A840417867AF.txt for auto update information.
Procedure for Auto Update Sketch:
Assume we have below configured:
Auto Update On Boot：checked Update URL: http://www.dragino.com/downloads/downloads/tmp/autoupdate/ Update Info: update_info Enable MAC Identify: unchecked
Then after reboot, the device will do auto update as below:
- Download the update information from http://www.dragino.com/downloads/downloads/tmp/autoupdate/update_info
- Compare the Latest version and the version on the device
- If server has a higer version, Device will download http://www.dragino.com/downloads/downloads/tmp/autoupdate/sketch.hex
- Do a md5sum check to verify the downloaded sketch is fine
- Update the MCU with the newer version sketch
- Update the version number to the latest version number
Upgrade Firmware to devices
The Yun firmware from Arduino official website won't work at ms14 because of different pin mapping. We have maitained a Dragino version Yun firmware for MS14. They can be downloaded from firmware download link. Firmware release note is HERE.
If you already have a Yun firmware running in the dragino devices. Then you can upgrade the firmware from WEB GUI. Otherwise, you will have to upgrade the firmware according to below instruction.
Upgrade via WEB GUI
Go to GUI → Upgrade page and select the correct firmware to upgrade. The firmware used for web upgrade should be a xxx.squashfs-sysupgrade.bin type firmware, user can choose if keep settings or not after upgrade.
Normally it will take about 2 minutes to flash the new firmware. Then all the LEDS will blink together which indicates that the system reboot with the new firmware.
Upgrade via U-Boot
If the ms14 doesn't have a Yun firmware, you need to upgrade a Yun firmware into it first.
Set up your tftp server with ip 192.168.255.2 and put the firmware on tftp server root.
In u-boot, both kernel and rootfs need to be upgraded. The commands is as below, replace the xxx with the exactly version you have on the firmware.
Upgrade Commands in U-Boot
dr_boot>tftpboot 0x81000000 ms14-arduino-yun-kernel-xxx.bin
dr_boot>erase 0x9fea0000 +0x140000
dr_boot>cp.b 0x81000000 0x9fea0000 $filesize
dr_boot>tftpboot 0x81000000 ms14-arduino-yun--rootfs-squashfs-xxx.bin
dr_boot>erase 0x9f050000 +0xe50000
dr_boot>cp.b 0x81000000 0x9f050000 $filesize
Change boot address for Yun firmware
dr_boot> setenv bootcmd bootm 0x9fea0000
Then you will have Yun firmware after reboot.
Upgrade to the IoT Mesh firmware
The Yun firmware and IoT mesh firmware has different flash layout and boot address. Switch between these firmware can't be complete via Web UI.
Below is the instruction of how to upgrade the device from Dragino Yun firmware to IoT Mesh Firmware:
- Upgrade the device to the middleware(download) via the Web UI (don't check keep settings).
- Access to the linux system and run: switch_firmware_from_Yun_to_IoT . Device will upgrade and reboot to Version: Dragino-v2 IoT-1.3.4. After that, user can continue to use other IoT Mesh Firmware by upgrade in Web UI.
output of this command is as below:
root@dragino:~# switch_firmware_from_Yun_to_IoT Start Flashing, Don't power off the device until it finish !!! Unlocking u-boot-env ... Writing from /var/IoT_firmware_part1 to u-boot-env ... Unlocking rootfs ... Writing from /var/IoT_firmware_part2 to rootfs ... Flashing finish. Reboot the device to boot to IoT firmware.
CLICK HERE for some detail examples.
Or consult Arduino Yun Example Git Source for more examples source.
Bridge examples doesn't work
The bridge examples from Arduino IDE are tested base on MEGA32u4 mcu. Mega32u4 has a hardware serial (serial1) which use for Bridge library, and has a USB port use as serial to print out debug info. In the bridge examples such as bridge --> httpclient, it use both bridge (serial1) and serial (usb serial). It is ok for Mega32u4, but if user use the same with other MCU such as mega328p, it won't work, because the bridge and serial are now use the same TXD/RXD from Mega328P. If user want to see debug info, they can use the console method in Bridge.
Update Sketch Fail
Arduino IDE shows signature mismatch
an example output from Arduino IDE as below:
Programmer Type : linuxgpio Description : Use the Linux sysfs interface to bitbang GPIO lines avrdude: Calibrating delay loop... calibrated to 49 cycles per us avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions Reading | ################################################## | 100% 0.00s avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9801 avrdude: Expected signature for ATmega32U4 is 1E 95 87 Double check chip, or use -F to override this check.
Above result shows that Dragino try to program the Arduino with mega32u4 mcu type but actaully the Arduino is mega2560 which has signature 0x1e9801. So it fails. To solve this issue, user can choose the mcu/board type to the correct one in the Dragino Web Interface --> Sensor --> Arduino Board Type.
AVR device not responding
Typical output in Arduino IDE for this issue is as below:
Programmer Type : linuxgpio Description : Use the Linux sysfs interface to bitbang GPIO lines avrdude: Calibrating delay loop... calibrated to 48 cycles per us avrdude: AVR device not responding avrdude: initialization failed, rc=-1 Double check connections and try again, or use -F to override this check. avrdude done. Thank you.
This means that there is something wrong on the SPI interface between Dragino devices and AVR(Arduino Board). So please check if the SPI connection between dragino and avr is ok.
See wrong strings in serial during booting
The Arduino Bridge Library use Baud Rate 250000 for UART communication. So in Arduino Yun Firmware, the kernel will switch the baud rate to 250000 during the booting process. Because u-boot used runs Baud Rate 115200, if use serial monitor to see the boot up process in 115200 baud rate mode, you can see messy code in UART after kernel chande the baud rate.
A typical output as below:
U-Boot 1.1.4 (Aug 12 2012 - 20:14:51)
AP121-2MB (ar9330) U-boot
DRAM: #### TAP VALUE 1 = f, 2 = 10
Top of RAM usable for U-Boot at: 84000000
Reserving 212k for U-Boot at: 83fc8000
Reserving 192k for malloc() at: 83f98000
Reserving 44 Bytes for Board Info at: 83f97fd4
Reserving 36 Bytes for Global Data at: 83f97fb0
Reserving 128k for boot params() at: 83f77fb0
Stack Pointer at: 83f77f98
Now running in RAM - U-Boot at: 83fc8000
id read 0x100000ff
flash size 16777216, sector count = 256
Flash: 16 MB
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
No valid address in Flash. Using fixed address
: cfg1 0x5 cfg2 0x7114
: cfg1 0xf cfg2 0x7214
ATHRS26: resetting s26
ATHRS26: s26 reset done
Hit any key to stop autoboot: 4 3 2 1 0
## Booting image at 9fea0000 ...
Image Name: MIPS OpenWrt Linux-3.8.3
Created: 2014-02-12 3:16:34 UTC
Image Type: MIPS Linux Kernel Image (lzma compressed)
Data Size: 1172210 Bytes = 1.1 MB
Load Address: 80060000
Entry Point: 80060000
Verifying Checksum at 0x9fea0040 ...OK
Uncompressing Kernel Image ... OK
## Transferring control to Linux (at address 80060000) ...
## Giving linux memsize in bytes, 67108864
Starting kernel ...
[ 0.000000] Linux version 3.8.3 (edwin@edwin-test) (gcc version 4.6.4 20121210 (prerelease) (Linaro GCC 4.6-2012.12) ) #17 Wed Feb 12 11:15:36 CST 2014
[ 0.000000] bootconsole [early0] enabled
[ 0.000000] CPU revision is: 00019374 (MIPS 24Kc)
[ 0.000000] SoC: Atheros AR9330 rev 1
[ 0.000000] Clocks: CPU:400.000MHz, DDR:400.000MHz, AHB:200.000MHz, Ref:25.000MHz
[ 0.000000] Determined physical RAM map:
[ 0.000000] memory: 04000000 @ 00000000 (usable)
[ 0.000000] Initrd not found or empty - disabling initrd
[ 0.000000] Zone ranges:
[ 0.000000] Normal [mem 0x00000000-0x03ffffff]
[ 0.000000] Movable zone start for each node
[ 0.000000] Early memory node ranges
[ 0.000000] node 0: [mem 0x00000000-0x03ffffff]
[ 0.000000] Primary instruction cache 64kB, VIPT, 4-way, linesize 32 bytes.
[ 0.000000] Primary data cache 32kB, 4-way, VIPT, cache aliases, linesize 32 bytes
[ 0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on. Total pages: 16256
[ 0.000000] Kernel command line: board=Linino console=ttyATH0,250000 mtdparts=spi0.0:256k(u-boot)ro,64k(u-boot-env)ro,14656k(rootfs),1280k(kernel),64k(nvram),64k(art),15936k@0x50000(firmware) rootfstype=squashfs,jffs2 noinitrd
[ 0.000000] PID hash table entries: 256 (order: -2, 1024 bytes)
[ 0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[ 0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[ 0.000000] __ex_table already sorted, skipping sort
[ 0.000000] Writing ErrCtl register=00000000
[ 0.000000] Readback ErrCtl register=00000000
[ 0.000000] Memory: 60900k/65536k available (2569k kernel code, 4636k reserved, 651k data, 232k init, 0k highmem)
[ 0.000000] SLUB: Genslabs=9, HWalign=32, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1
[ 0.000000] NR_IRQS:51
[ 0.000000] Calibrating delay loop... 265.42 BogoMIPS (lpj=1327104)
[ 0.080000] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[ 0.080000] Mount-cache hash table entries: 512
[ 0.090000] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[ 0.090000] MIPS: machine is Arduino Yun
[ 0.540000] Setting DogStick2 GPIO
[ 0.560000] bio: create slab at 0
[ 0.560000] SCSI subsystem initialized
[ 0.570000] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[ 0.570000] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[ 0.570000] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[ 0.580000] Switching to clocksource MIPS
[ 0.580000] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[ 0.590000] TCP established hash table entries: 512 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 0.590000] TCP bind hash table entries: 512 (order: -1, 2048 bytes)
[ 0.590000] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 512 bind 512)
[ 0.600000] TCP: reno registered
[ 0.600000] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 0.610000] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[ 0.620000] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[ 0.640000] squashfs: version 4.0 (2009/01/31) Phillip Lougher
[ 0.640000] jffs2: version 2.2 (NAND) (SUMMARY) (LZMA) (RTIME) (CMODE_PRIORITY) (c) 2001-2006 Red Hat, Inc.
[ 0.650000] msgmni has been set to 118
[ 0.660000] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 253)
[ 0.660000] io scheduler noop registered
[ 0.670000] io scheduler deadline registered (default)
[ 0.670000] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 16 ports, IRQ sharing enabled
[ 0.680000] ar933x-uart: ttyATH0 at MMIO 0x18020000 (irq = 11) is
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Recover Dragino Yun firmware
User may lost access to the Dragino Yun by accidently change the Linux configure files to in correct setting, lost password or other caused. There are different methods to recover.
Reset to factory default
Dragino Yun has a toggle button (GPIO11) which can be used for reset. When the Dragino Yun is running in OpenWrt System, user can press the toggle button to reset the device. When press this button, the WLAN LED will blink.
- If pressing the toggle button and release after 5 seconds, it will reset the WiFi setting and other settings will be kept.
- If pressing the toggle button and release after 30 seconds, it will reset ALL the setting to factory default .
Recover via RJ45 port in Failsafe u-boot
This mehod LAN connection direclty between Dragino and PC.
An instruction in Windows is as below
Set up TFTP server
Download the tftp server (recommend tftp32d.exe). And download the latest Yun firmware from http://www.dragino.com/downloads/index.php?dir=motherboards/ms14/Firmware/Yun/. The firmware we need is the kernel and rootfs-squashfs files. Put these firmware files and tftp32d at the same directory. Start the tftp server.
Download Hercules utility
Download Hercules, this is the tool we use to transfer commands to Yun Shield in Failsafe mode. Run Hercules and input correct parameters as below:
Protocol: UDP Module IP: 192.168.255.1 Port: 6666 Local port: 6666
Connect your PC to MS14
Connect the PC and MS14 LAN port via an Ethernet cable. Set up PC with below LAN IP 192.168.255.2 and netmask 255.255.255.0. Disable PC’s firewall.
Power up MS14 to Web Failsafe mode
Press the Failsafe button and power up MS14; user will see all the LEDs blink together, release the button after 10 seconds and there are some messages will pop up in the Hercules panel, which means the MS14 has been in Web Failsafe Netconsole mode and ready to access commands.
User can type the commands in Hercules to transfer and upgrade Yun Shield to the latest firmware with factory settings.
The update commands are as below, replace the xxx with the actually version. Note: when typing command in Hercules: user must add <CR> at the end of each command; $ is a special char in Hercules, user should double it (key two $$) when typing.
tftpboot 0x81000000 ms14-arduino-yun-kernel-xxx.bin erase 0x9fea0000 +0x140000 cp.b 0x81000000 0x9fea0000 $filesize
tftpboot 0x81000000 ms14-arduino-yun--rootfs-squashfs-xxx.bin erase 0x9f050000 +0xe50000 cp.b 0x81000000 0x9f050000 $filesize
Reset to the new firmware
Warning: User should use exactly address number in the erase and cp.b shows, wrong address number may properly destroy the boot-loader of MS14 and the device won’t boot anymore. Or destroy the radio data of MS14 which may lead to a poor wifi performance or incorrect MAC addresses.
Recover in Linux is similar with Windows, the mail different is that the tool use in Linux is nc and runs with nc -kul 6666. Below shows that the MS14 has been in Failsafe Netconsole mode and detected by nc.